Pope Francis

April 12, 2016
Pope Francis

URBI ET ORBI MESSAGE
OF HIS HOLINESS POPE FRANCIS

EASTER 2017

Central loggia of the Vatican Basilica
Easter, 16 April 2017


Dear Brothers and Sisters, Happy Easter!

Today, throughout the world, the Church echoes once more the astonishing message of the first disciples: “Jesus is risen!” – “He is truly risen, as he said!”

The ancient feast of Passover, the commemoration of the liberation of the Hebrew people from slavery, here finds fulfilment. By his resurrection, Jesus Christ has set us free from the slavery of sin and death, and has opened before us the way to eternal life.

All of us, when we let ourselves be mastered by sin, lose the right way and end up straying like lost sheep. But God himself, our shepherd, has come in search of us. To save us, he lowered himself even to accepting death on the cross. Today we can proclaim:“The Good Shepherd has risen, who laid down his life for his sheep, and willingly died for his flock, alleluia” (Roman Missal, IV Sunday of Easter, Communion antiphon).

In every age, the Risen Shepherd tirelessly seeks us, his brothers and sisters, wandering in the deserts of this world. With the marks of the passion – the wounds of his merciful love – he draws us to follow him on his way, the way of life. Today too, he places upon his shoulders so many of our brothers and sisters crushed by evil in all its varied forms.

The Risen Shepherd goes in search of all those lost in the labyrinths of loneliness and marginalization. He comes to meet them through our brothers and sisters who treat them with respect and kindness, and help them to hear his voice, an unforgettable voice, a voice calling them back to friendship with God.

He takes upon himself all those victimized by old and new forms of slavery, inhuman labour, illegal trafficking, exploitation and discrimination, and grave forms of addiction. He takes upon himself children and adolescents deprived of their carefree innocence and exploited, and those deeply hurt by acts of violence that take place within the walls of their own home.

The Risen Shepherd walks beside all those forced to leave their homelands as a result of armed conflicts, terrorist attacks, famine and oppressive regimes. Everywhere he helps these forced migrants to encounter brothers and sisters, with whom they can share bread and hope on their journey.

In the complex and often dramatic situations of today’s world, may the Risen Lord guide the steps of all those who work for justice and peace. May he grant the leaders of nations the courage they need to prevent the spread of conflicts and to put a halt to the arms trade.

Especially in these days, may he sustain the efforts of all those actively engaged in bringing comfort and relief to the civil population in beloved Syria, so greatly suffering from a war that continues to sow horror and death. Yesterday saw the latest vile attack on fleeing refugees, resulting in the death and injury of many. May he grant peace to the entire Middle East, beginning with the Holy Land, as well as in Iraq and Yemen.

May the Good Shepherd remain close to the people of South Sudan, Sudan, Somalia and the Democratic Republic of Congo, who endure continuing hostilities, aggravated by the grave famine affecting certain parts of Africa.

May the Risen Jesus sustain the efforts of all those who, especially in Latin America, are committed to ensuring the common good of societies marked at times by political and social tensions that in some cases have resulted in violence. May it be possible for bridges of dialogue to be built, by continuing to fight the scourge of corruption and to seek viable and peaceful solutions to disputes, for progress and the strengthening of democratic institutions in complete respect for the rule of law.

May the Good Shepherd come to the aid of Ukraine, still beset by conflict and bloodshed, to regain social harmony. May he accompany every effort to alleviate the tragic sufferings of those affected by the conflict.

The Risen Lord continues to shed his blessing upon the continent of Europe. May he grant hope to those experiencing moments of crisis and difficulty, especially due to high unemployment, particularly among young people.

Dear brothers and sisters, this year Christians of every confession celebrate Easter together. With one voice, in every part of the world, we proclaim the great message: “The Lord is truly risen, as he said!” May Jesus, who vanquished the darkness of sin and death, grant peace to our days.

Happy Easter!

Pope Francis delivers his Traditional Urbi et Orbi (to the city and the world) message from the central loggia of St Peter’s Basilica on a sunny Easter Sunday.

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Friday April 8, 2017

Vatican

Sermon of Pope Francis during today’s Mass

“You can have defects, be anxious and live irritated sometimes, but do not forget that your life is the biggest enterprise in the world.

Only you can prevent it from going into decline.

There are many who appreciate you, admire you and love you.

I would like you to remember that to be happy, is not to have a sky without storms, road without accidents, works without fatigue, relationships without disappointments.

To be happy is to find strength in forgiveness, hope in battles, security in the box of fear, love in disagreements.

Being happy is not only valuing the smile, but also reflecting on sadness.

It is not just to commemorate success, but to learn lessons in failures.

It is not just to have joy with applause, but to have joy in anonymity.

To be happy is to recognize that life is worth living, despite all the challenges, misunderstandings, and periods of crisis.

Being happy is not a fatality of destiny, but a conquest for those who know how to travel within their own being.

To be happy is to stop being a victim of problems and become an actor in one’s own history.

It is to cross deserts but to be able to find an oasis in the recesses of our soul.

It is to thank God every morning for the miracle of life.

Being happy is not being afraid of your own feelings.

It is knowing how to talk about yourself.It is courage to hear a “no”.It is to have self-confidence to receive criticism, even if it is unfair.It is to kiss the children, to pamper parents, to have poetic moments with friends, even if they hurt us.To be happy is to let the free, happy and simple creature live within each one of us.It is to have maturity to say ‘I was wrong’.It is to have the audacity to say ‘forgive me’.It is to have sensitivity to express ‘I need you’.It is to be able to say ‘I love you’.May your life become a garden of opportunity to be happy …May you be joyous in your spring.May your winters make you friend of wisdom.And when you err on the way, start all over again.Then you will be more passionate about life.And you will discover that to be happy is not to have a perfect life.But use tears to water tolerance.Use losses to refine patience.Use flaws to sculpt serenity.Use pain to lapping pleasure.Use obstacles to open the windows of intelligence.Never give up ….Never give up on the people you love.Never give up being happy, because life is a must-see spectacle!”

Pope Francis

Pope Francis (born Jorge Mario Bergoglio, on 17 December 1936) is the 266th and current Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. He chose Francis as his papal name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi. Francis is the first Jesuit pope, the first from the Americas, the first from the Southern Hemisphere and the first non-European pope since the Syrian Gregory III, who died in 741.

Born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Bergoglio worked briefly as a chemical technologist before beginning seminary studies. He was ordained a Catholic priest in 1969, and from 1973 to 1979 was Argentina’s provincial superior of the Society of Jesus. He was accused of handing two priests to the National Reorganization Process during the Dirty War, but the lawsuit was ultimately dismissed. He became the Archbishop of Buenos Aires in 1998, and was created a cardinal in 2001 by Pope John Paul II. He led the Argentine Church during the December 2001 riots in Argentina, and the administrations of Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner considered him a political rival. Following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI on 28 February 2013, a papal conclave elected Bergoglio as his successor on 13 March.

Throughout his public life, Pope Francis has been noted for his humility, emphasis on God’s mercy, concern for the poor, and commitment to interfaith dialogue. He is credited with having a humble, less formal approach to the papacy. He maintains that the church should be more open and welcoming. He opposes consumerism, irresponsible development, and supports taking action on climate change, a focus of his papacy with the promulgation of Laudato si’. In international diplomacy, he helped to restore full diplomatic relations between the U.S. and Cuba.

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12 November 2016 

5 Leadership Lessons You Can Learn From Pope Francis

So how has a relatively obscure Jesuit cardinal from Latin America become such a successful leader? Here are five lessons that Pope Francis’s early tenure offer drawn from The Francis Miracle: Inside the Transformation of the Pope and the Church by John L. Allen, Jr.

1. Set an example

The reformist Pope immediately set his sights on the Vatican’s finances, aiming to clean up a regular source of scandal. For the Pope—who took his name from the saint who devoted himself to a life of poverty—financial reform was a priority because it brought “together the three vices that distress him more than anything else: corruption, exaggerated clerical privilege and indifference to the poor,” Allen writes

But he also knew that ensuring clean books at the highest levels would set an example of good governance for the entire Church and clear the path for pursuing a wider agenda. “Today, perhaps the most audacious of all of Pope Francis’s plans is to make the Vatican into a global model of best practices in financial administration—not just as an end in itself but as a way of leading the Church at all levels to clean up its act,” Allen writes.

2. Don’t just hire your friends

Australian Cardinal George Pell was an unlikely candidate for spearheading Francis’s financial reforms. A staunch conservative, Pell was privately disappointed with the Pope’s election, concerned that he would lead the Vatican down a liberal path. In size–he’s a 6-foot-3 former Australian football player–and in personality, he also differed from the soft-spoken Pontiff.

But Francis had heard Pell’s rants against the status of the Church’s finances and knew that his blunt style would be effective in pushing reforms through the traditional institution. At a meeting in March 2014 during which the two spoke Italian because neither was comfortable in each other’s language, Francis asked Pell to become his finance czar.

3. Take advice seriously

From the very beginning, Francis has demonstrated a willingness to listen to those around him. As his first substantial move in office, for example, he created a Council of Cardinal Advisers comprising eight members from around the global who hold ideologically diverse views. The group has since advised him on each of his major actions, and Allen calls it the “the most important decision-making force in the Vatican.” Meanwhile, Pope Francis has given renewed significance to the Synod of Bishops, an advisory group that Pope John Paul II was known to occasionally sit through while reading a book. Francis, by contrast, attended one meeting almost entirely unannounced to join in the discussion (Allen compared it to a U.S. president walking into a meeting of a House committee), and he placed a heavy emphasis on the rare Extraordinary Synod that he convened to discuss family issues like divorce and remarriage.

4. But also be willing to ignore advice

The Pope has also been willing to act unilaterally to ensure that his agenda moves forward, such as when he named Bishop Nunzio Galantino to be secretary-general of the powerful Episcopal Conference of Italy in December 2013. Galantino had a reputation of modesty that reflected Pope Francis’s persona,eschewing, for example, formal titles and rejecting a secretary or chauffeur. But he was not terribly popular with the Italian clergy. When Francis asked for potential names to fill the role of secretary-general, nearly 500 Italian clergymen submitted their recommendations and Galantino received only a single nod. Francis chose him anyway.

5. Be accessible

As the head of the Vatican, Pope Francis has plenty of headaches to deal with at home. But he’s also the leader of nearly 1.1 billion Catholics, and he has made an impressive effort to connect with his followers. There’s no better example of his outreach efforts than the cold-calls he makes to unexpecting people around the world. There was the call to Michele Ferri, the 14-year-old brother of a gas station operator who had been killed in an armed robbery; a call to a Vatican critic who was sick in the hospital; a call to an Italian woman who had beseeched the Pope in a letter to help her solve the mystery of her daughter’s murder; and many more that have not been reported in the media. In one case that was reported, the Pope dialed (he does the calling, not an aide) a convent of cloistered Carmelite nuns in Spain to wish a happy New Year. When they didn’t pick up, he left a message, jokingly asking, “What are the nuns doing that they can’t answer?” (praying, according to a local media report) He later called back, and this time the nuns were gathered around the phone to talk with Francis on speakerphone.

11 November 2016

Francis warns of ‘rigid’ liturgy,

confesses soft spot for old ladies

Pope Francis greets an elderly woman in a poor neighborhood in Asunción, Paraguay, in this July 12, 2015, file photo. (Credit: CNS photo/Paul Haring.)

In an interview at the start of a newly published collection of his homilies while archbishop of Buenos Aires, Pope Francis has warned of rigidity in those seeking to roll back liturgical reform. He also shares thoughts on preaching, politics and Pentecostals — and his soft spot for ladies of a certain age.

ROME-Proving once again that he can double as the world’s parish priest and the successor of Peter, Pope Francis has given a wide-ranging interview where he acknowledges he has a soft spot for old ladies while rejecting the conservative theological idea of a liturgical “reform of the reform.”

Referring to what’s known as the “extraordinary form” for celebrating the Mass – in which priest and congregation face the tabernacle, as they did before the Second Vatican Council, Francis said his predecessor Benedict XVI was “magnanimous” in making the “fair gesture” of bringing it back.

That decision, the pope said, was an attempt to address “a certain mentality of some groups and people who had nostalgia and were walking away.” Yet, he insisted, celebrating the Mass this way is an exception, “it is for this reason that we speak of the ‘extraordinary’ form.”

“We have to meet with magnanimity those who are tied to a certain way of prayer,” Francis said. “But the Second Vatican Council and Sacrosantum Concilium should carry on as they are. To talk about a ‘reform of the reform’ is a mistake.”

Sacrosantum Concilium, or the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, was the first document of the Second Vatican Council. It allowed for Mass to be celebrated in the vernacular language, and introduced a series of changes to allow for a greater participation of the congregation in the celebration of the Eucharist.

The “reform of the reform” refers to the attempt in some conservative quarters to abolish many of the liturgical changes implemented after the Council, claiming they were wrong or have been misinterpreted and taken too far.

The Argentine pope was talking to his Jesuit friend Father Antonio Spadaro at the opening of a book collecting more than 200 homilies and addresses by Jorge Mario Bergoglio, then cardinal archbishop of Buenos Aires, between 1999 and 2013. In Your Eyes is my Word is currently only available in Italian.

Spadaro had asked the pope to write an introduction, but said Francis preferred to have a conversation instead. As a result, the first fifteen pages of the book, which is over 1,000 pages long, are taken up with their exchange on July 9.

The priest, who is director of the semi-official Jesuit journal Civiltà Cattolica, asked the pope if he saw dangers in some of those calling for a “reform of the reform.”

Francis answers: “I ask myself about this. For example, I always try to understand what’s behind the people who are too young to have lived the pre-conciliar liturgy but who want it. Sometimes I’ve found myself in front of people who are too strict, who have a rigid attitude. And I wonder: How come such a rigidity? Dig, dig, this rigidity always hides something: insecurity, sometimes even more … Rigidity is defensive. True love is not rigid.”

Francis also talks to Spadaro about experiences he has had in the confessional and in meeting people. The closer a priest is to the people, he says, the better preacher he becomes, because he is able to relate the Gospel directly to the problems in people’s lives.

“The farther away you are from the people and people’s problems, the more you take refuge in a theology framed by ‘should and shouldn’t,’ that doesn’t communicate anything, is empty, abstract, lost in nothingness.”

“Sometimes, we answer with our own words questions no one is asking,” he warns.

The pope also talks about ecumenism, underlying the importance of the dialogue with Pentecostals, noting he had a very close relationship with several leaders of that movement in Buenos Aires. He also warns, however, of the risk of falling in with a “theology of prosperity.”

Talking specifically about his home country Argentina, Francis acknowledges that late President Néstor Kirchner “really couldn’t stand me. The exchanges were very tense.”

The animosity the president felt towards the leader of the Argentine Church has been well documented, with Kirchner once referring to the cardinal as the “spiritual leader of the opposition.”

Francis also notes that, although it should never be partisan, a homily is always “political” because it’s delivered amidst the people. “Everything we do has a political dimension and concerns the construction of civilization.”

One can’t say, he continues, that Christians are a-political because as citizens they’re called to work together towards the common good.

“We must find new forms of dialogue and cohabitation in our pluralistic societies,” he says. “We need new ties, a new conscience of solidarity that goes beyond any religious, ideological or political frontier.”

In a more anecdotal tone, Francis says that when writing a homily, a priest must be creative, otherwise, he’s “sterile.” Reading books that go beyond theology, for instance can be of great help. The pope in particular notes how he has been inspired by Fyodor Dostoyevsky’s classic novel The Brothers Karamazov.

He also talks about his need to connect with people, about missing the freedom he used to have to improvise his homilies, and acknowledges having once used fireworks in a liturgy to talk to children about the devil and about the popemobile rides.

“Sometimes I feel the desire to get off the popemobile. Often it happens in front of the old ladies. I have a weakness for old ladies … especially those who are funny,” Francis said.

2 November 2016 

Pope offers new beatitudes for saints of a new age

By Cindy Wooden

Catholic News Service

MALMO, Sweden (CNS) — The saints are blessed because they were faithful and meek and cared for others, Pope Francis said.

At the end of an ecumenical trip to Sweden, Pope Francis celebrated the feast of All Saints Nov. 1 with Mass in a Malmo stadium. He highlighted the lives of Swedish saints Elizabeth Hesselblad and Bridget of Vadstena, who “prayed and worked to create bonds of unity and fellowship between Christians.”

The best description of the saints — in fact, their “identity card” — the pope said, is found in the beatitudes from Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount, which begins, “Blessed are the poor in spirit.”

And, he said, as Christian saints have done throughout the ages, Christ’s followers today are called “to confront the troubles and anxieties of our age with the spirit and love of Jesus.”

New situations require new energy and a new commitment, he said, and then he offered a new list of beatitudes for modern Christians:

— “Blessed are those who remain faithful while enduring evils inflicted on them by others and forgive them from their heart.

— “Blessed are those who look into the eyes of the abandoned and marginalized and show them their closeness.

— “Blessed are those who see God in every person and strive to make others also discover him.

— “Blessed are those who protect and care for our common home.

— “Blessed are those who renounce their own comfort in order to help others.

— “Blessed are those who pray and work for full communion between Christians.”

“All these are messengers of God’s mercy and tenderness,” Pope Francis said. “Surely they will receive from him their merited reward.”

Courtesy: Catholic News Service

For the Original Article: https://cnstopstories.com/2016/11/01/pope-offers-new-beatitudes-for-saints-of-a-new-age/

October 30, 2016

How a restless reforming pope

can help heal Reformation rift

Austen Ivereigh  

A painting of Martin Luther nailing his 95 theses to the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany. (Credit: Greg Copeland/Concordia Publishing.)

Martin Luther’s protest at corruption of the sacraments and the reactions that followed have left a centuries-old wound both Catholics and Lutherans are determined to heal. Here’s what Francis, who travels today to Sweden to commemorate the start of the Reformation, brings to that effort.

When, on this day 499 years ago, a small-town Augustinian friar lecturing in a start-up college in provincial Germany posted dozens of arguments on the door of a castle church, he offered a prime example of what scientists call “the butterfly effect,” namely that small causes can have large effects.

In reality, Martin Luther’s nailing (or more likely gluing) his hard-to-read 95 theses on what was, in effect, Wittenberg university’s bulletin board, was less the trigger of the Reformation than the copies he posted, together with an accompanying letter of breathtaking audacity.

One was to Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz, then the most powerful bishop in Germany, which meant, sooner or later, the pope himself would be involved.

Luther was not the first to critique the sale of indulgences, or the way the sacrament of confession had been reduced in late-medieval Europe from a channel of God’s grace to a mechanistic transaction. (A local Dominican friar loathed by Luther had a marketing jingle: ‘As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from Purgatory springs’).

But as all great polemicists do, he nailed the theological error behind the corruption at the crucial moment, provoking a disproportionate reaction that in turn fueled an uprising. And part of that was about timing.

Tomorrow’s Feast of All Saints was when the ruler of Saxony used to bring out his impressive display of relics, and indulgences were granted (for a price) to the pilgrims who viewed them.

By attacking the system, Luther put into doubt not just the whole medieval basis of clerical livelihoods, but a powerful network of interests – from bankers and bishops all the way up to Rome – that was never likely to take the assault lying down.

There was also a moment when the protest went viral: at Worms, when Luther in 1521 was called on to answer to the emperor. His extraordinarily courageous act of turning up and defying the might of state and Church won many hearts and minds, and gave birth to a revolutionary movement that soon span out of control.

It wasn’t just the authorities’ self-interested over-reaction, but Luther’s own mercurial psychology – tripped by the knowledge that he faced execution at any moment – that explains the series of events, movements and conflicts that we now call the Reformation.

But whatever its causes, the result was tragedy. A valid critique of genuine corruption descended into heresy, division and war.

Luther did not intend to split the Church, yet most of the northern European church over time rejected Rome. Luther never intended to question the Sacraments, yet they were soon thrown into doubt. He never wanted a social uprising, yet that is what occurred.

But of all the unintended consequences of Luther’s protest, the secularization of Europe, especially of its educated classes, is probably the greatest of all – a five-century process meticulously traced in Brad Gregory’s The Unintended Reformation.

Endless doctrinal controversy followed by a hundred years of destructive and inconclusive political-religious wars led to the privatization of religion and the search for empirical observation and philosophy and ideology as a means of uniting society.

When these eventually collapsed – as they now have – relativism and individualism are (mostly) all that remains.

And, of course, shopping. The drive for technology and to consume were the seventeenth-century Dutch responses to sectarian conflict, and are nowadays pretty much the western world’s dominant religion.

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Pope Francis and senior Lutheran Martin Junge at an event in Malmo

Of course, both sides are to blame in that cycle of events – something that will be acknowledged today in the first ecumenical global commemoration of the Reformation in Lund.

The dialogue between the two sides is 50 years old, and has produced a number of significant documents – which begs the question of what Pope Francis today can add to the process.

Here, at least, are five things he brings to the table which no previous pope has.

First, he is – to borrow my biography’s title – a “great reformer,” one who sees the need for the Church to be always in need of renewal in response both to internal degradation and external needs. He has said this is something the Church can learn from Luther, although it is equally present in the great reforming popes of the past, or in saints such as Ignatius of Loyola and Francis of Assisi.

Second, he comes with no fear or suspicion of Lutherans but decades of fellowship. In his interview with the Swedish Jesuit journal Signum he spoke of many friendships with Argentine Lutherans -Danish as well as Swedish – with whom he has had sincere exchanges. Traveling with him on the plane today will be one of his oldest non-Catholic friends, the evangelical pastor Marcelo Figueroa.

Third, he feels no obligation to remain within the boundaries of existing theological consensus. In his Signum interview, Francis approvingly quoted what Patriach Athenagoras allegedly told Pope Paul VI: “Let the two of us go ahead, and we will put the theologians on an island to discuss among themselves.”

“Going ahead” in this case means opening up opportunities for collaboration and friendship through common witness and joint works, which Francis passionately believes create new spaces for the Holy Spirit to bind people together. What happens today is intended to break new ground for the theologians later to work out.

Fourth, Francis has a specific abhorrence of the kind of corruption Luther denounced. One of the pope’s favorite phrases is “spiritual worldliness,” an illness identified by the Jesuit theologian Henri de Lubac as using the Gospel in the service of particular worldly interests – whether ideology, money, or status.

In my biography I show how Jorge Mario Bergoglio constantly fought against symptoms of this worldliness in the Jesuits and later in the clergy. As cardinal he saw it in Rome and hated it; now he is pope, he is quietly attacking it on many different fronts.

To take one example: under John Paul II, a cardinal in receipt of a very fat donation could arrange for the benefactor to have a bacciamano – kiss the pope’s hand – after Mass with him, and of course a picture with the pope to sit on his desk to impress the world.

Try doing that now with Francis, and you’ll get a flea in your ear.

Finally, Francis is the pope who, more than any other leader of the Catholic Church in modern times. has restored the primacy of mercy to the Church’s proclamation. The whole point of mercy is that it is about God’s reckless forgiving and our complete inability to merit it.

Wasn’t that Luther’s point?

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Perhaps the main task of today’s ecumenical acts in Lund and Malmö is simply to help both Lutherans and Catholics “receive” the results of 50 years of dialogue between the two Churches. The result of that dialogue is a series of agreements – as well as persisting disagreements – ably summed up in the joint document prepared for the occasion, From Conflict to Communion.

Yet who knows about it? William G. Rusch, Professor of Lutheran Studies at Yale’s Divinity School and a leading ecumenist, believes “the task before us is to receive the fruit of 50 years of dialogue,” the results of which have not been “rejected” so much as “neglected.”

Which is why, said Rusch, the mere fact of the pope appearing today in Lund – where in 1947 the Lutheran World Federation (LWF) was founded – is “an enormous step, compared to where we’ve been.”

The LWF speaks for some 90 percent of the world’s Lutheran Churches, with a combined membership of around 80m people.

In a telephone interview, Rusch told Crux he hopes that the papal visit will enable what he believes to be the next step in the Lutheran-Catholic dialogue, namely a juridical process that binds the LWF’s member Churches and of course Catholics.

The great step forward in this respect was the 1999 Declaration of Justification. According to Rusch the achievement was not just in what it said – essentially, that the roots of Luther’s disagreements with the papacy no longer pertain – but how it came about.

The process showed that there could be a “magisterial function for the global Lutheran communion,” which effectively allowed the theological agreements to move from paper to practice.

It frustrates Rusch that since then, that gain hasn’t been built upon. While he admires From Conflict to Communion and the recent US Catholic-Lutheran document, Declaration on the Way: Church, Ministry, and Eucharist, he says neither provides a practical basis for moving forward.

But this kind of institutional process is not where Francis’s interest lies. He believes in praying and working together for justice and peace; such common witness, he believes, is what opens hearts and minds – and prevents the kind of institutional rigidity which is toxic for Christian unity.

Today, we might just see a gesture, or an initiative, which shakes open a new phase for the future of the dialogue, and which is aimed as much at secular Europe as the Lutherans.

“I am convinced those who don’t believe or don’t seek God, maybe haven’t felt the restlessness that comes from seeing a witness,” he told Signum, adding: “And this is very tied to affluence. Restlessness is rarely found in affluence.”

Restlessness is one area where the reformers Martin Luther and Pope Francis are definitely on common ground.

[Read the original article in CRUX : https://cruxnow.com/analysis/2016/10/30/restless-reforming-pope-can-help-heal-reformation-rift/]

“The Bible Is an Extremely Dangerous Book,”

Pope Tells Young People

In prologue to new youth bible, Francis reveals personal relationship with Scripture

Jules Germain

On the occasion of the publication of the new Bible for youth, Pope Francis has written a very personal account of his own relationship with Scripture.

Writing the prologue to the new German edition of the Youcat Bible, which will be published Oct. 21, Pope Francis speaks lovingly of an old, worn-out Bible he has carried around for half his life.

He counsels young people on the best approach to reading the Bible so it brings the Light of the World into their lives and doesn’t end up on a shelf. It is, he reminds readers, a “dangerous” book in certain parts of the world: owning one can lead to jail or torture.

And he quotes Mahatma Gandhi, who said, “You Christians have in your hands a book containing enough dynamite to shatter all civilization.”

Here is the Pope’s prologue:

My dear young friends:

If you could see my Bible, you would not be particularly impressed. What—that’s the Pope’s Bible? Such an old, worn-out book!

You could buy me a new one for $1,000, but I would not want it. I love my old Bible, which has accompanied me half my life. It has been with me in my times of joy and times of tears. It is my most precious treasure. I live out of it, and I wouldn’t give anything in the world for it.

I really like this new Youth Bible. It’s so colorful, so rich in testimonies: testimonies of the saints, testimonies of young people. It is so inviting that when you start to read at the beginning, you can’t stop until the last page.

And then …? And then it disappears on a shelf, collecting dust. Your children find it one day and bring it to the flea market.

It must not come to that.

I’ll tell you something: There are more persecuted Christians in the world today than in the early days of the Church. And why are they persecuted? They are persecuted because they wear a cross and bear witness to Jesus. They are convicted because they own a Bible. The Bible is therefore a highly dangerous book—so dangerous that you are treated in some countries as if you were hiding hand grenades in your closet.

It was a non-Christian, Mahatma Gandhi, who once said: “You Christians look after a document containing enough dynamite to blow all civilization to pieces, turn the world upside down, and bring peace to a battle-torn planet. But you treat it as though it is nothing more than a piece of literature.”

So what do you have in your hands? A piece of literature? Some nice old stories? Then you would have to say to the many Christians who go to prison or are tortured because they own a Bible: “How foolish you are; it’s just a piece of literature!”

No. By the word of God has Light come into the world, and it will never go out. In Evangelii Gaudium (175) I said, “We do not blindly seek God, or wait for him to speak to us first, for ‘God has already spoken, and there is nothing further that we need to know, which has not been revealed to us.’ Let us receive the sublime treasure of the revealed word.”

So you have something divine in your hands: a book like fire! A book through which God speaks. So notice: The Bible is not meant to be placed on a shelf, but to be in your hands, to read often—every day, both on your own and together with others. You do sports together or go shopping together. Why not read the Bible together as well—two, three, or four of you? In nature, in the woods, on the beach, at night in the glow of a few candles … you will have a great experience!

Or are you afraid of making a fool of yourself in front of others?

Read with attention! Do not stay on the surface as if reading a comic book! Never just skim the Word of God! Ask yourself: “What does this say to my heart? Does God speak through these words to me? Has he touched me in the depths of my longing? What should I do?” Only in this way can the force of the Word of God unfold. Only in this way can it change our lives, making them great and beautiful.

I want to tell you how I read my old Bible. Often I read a little and then put it away and contemplate the Lord. Not that I see the Lord, but he looks at me. He’s there. I let myself look at him. And I feel—this is not sentimentality—I feel deeply the things that the Lord tells me. Sometimes he does not speak. I then feel nothing, only emptiness, emptiness, emptiness…. But I remain patiently, and so I wait, reading and praying. I pray sitting, because it hurts me to kneel. Sometimes I even fall asleep while praying. But it does not matter. I’m like a son with the father, and that is what’s important.

Would you like to make me happy? Read the Bible!

Pope Francis

– See more at: http://aleteia.org/2015/10/17/the-bible-is-an-extremely-dangerous-book-pope-tells-young-people/#sthash.ytorjf7K.dpuf

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AMORIS LÆTITIA

Pope Francis’s groundbreaking new document “Amoris Laetitia” ( “The Joy of Love”) asks the church to meet people where they are, to consider the complexities of people’s lives and to respect people’s consciences when it comes to moral decisions. 

“Amoris Laetitia” consists of reflections on the Gospels and church teaching on love, the family and children and a great deal of practical advice from the pope. Pope Francis reminds married couples that a good marriage is a “dynamic process” and that each side has to put up with imperfections. “Love does not have to be perfect for us to value it” (122, 113). The pope, speaking as a pastor, encourages not only married couples, but also engaged couples, expectant mothers, adoptive parents, widows, as well as aunts, uncles and grandparents. He is especially attentive that no one feels unimportant or excluded from God’s love.

TOO BUSY you to the Read Are through at The Entire Document ?

! The try OUT A SIMPLER One for the Download here  A Summary of  AMORIS LÆTITIA: 

AMORIS LÆTITIA Summary

Go to File here to download  some of at The OFT Posed Questions and Their Answers ON  AMORIS LÆTITIA :

AMORIS LÆTITIA Q & A

Please download the pdf file to read the entire document.:

papa-francesco_esortazione-ap_20160319_amoris-laetitia_en

In this second episode of “The Joy of Love,” Fr. Daniel P. Horan, OFM explores Chapter One of Pope Francis’s Apostolic Exhortation “Amoris Laetitia.”

 

Study guide for ‘Amoris Laetitia’

Thomas Reese  

Amoris Laetitia

When I received a copy of Pope Francis’ apostolic exhortation, Amoris Laetitia, I had to do an “all-nighter” reading of it so I could write a column to be posted when the embargo expired at 6 a.m. Eastern time. That is not how you should read the exhortation. Rather, you want to take your time, as I did in reading it the second time.

Like his earlier writings, this exhortation, “The Joy of Love,” is written in a personal, pastoral style and is accessible to most readers. It is not an academic tome, but it is long — 260 pages. It would be best to read it a chapter at a time rather than all at once as I was forced to do.

This document cries for discussion in families, parishes, and schools. There is no need for people to wait while the bishops and pastors organize a response to the document. Anyone can download the exhortation, call their family and friends and say, “Let’s read and discuss the exhortation.” Anyone part of a book club can recommend that the exhortation be their next selection.

To assist you in your reading, I have drawn up a list of study questions that will be helpful for individual reading or group discussions. The numbers in parentheses refer to paragraphs in the exhortation.

For background, it is important to remember that this exhortation comes after a process that went on for more than three years, beginning with a worldwide questionnaire on family issues that was sent out by the Vatican to bishops in order to get input from experts and the laity.

Then came the synod of bishops that took place in October of 2014, followed by another questionnaire and another synod in October of 2015. Each synod issued a report, called a “relatio.” The reports were not binding on the pope, but he took them and all he heard from the synod delegates and used them in writing his exhortation.

He quotes extensively from the Second Vatican Council, popes, and the synod, which is normal in any papal document, but he also quotes from bishops’ conferences and even authors like Martin Luther King, three Latin American poets, Josef Pieper,  Erich Fromm, and Gabriel Marcel.

The exhortation is divided into nine chapters.

The first looks at the family from a scriptural perspective. Next comes an examination of the actual situations of families. The third recalls some essential aspects of the church’s teaching on marriage and family, paving the way for what the pope calls the two central chapters on love.

If you are not going to read the whole exhortation, you should certainly read chapter 4, and if you have children, chapter 5.

Chapter 6 highlights some pastoral approaches “that can guide us in building sound and fruitful homes.”

Chapter 7 deals with the raising and education of children. The next chapter offers “an invitation to mercy and the pastoral discernment of those situations that fall short of what the Lord demands of us.”

Priests and those who are divorced should especially read chapter 8.

And the final chapter concludes with a brief discussion of family spirituality.

Introduction

The pope begins his exhortation by saying, “The joy of love experienced by families is also the joy of the Church.” He says that complexity of the issues discussed at the synod “revealed the need for continued open discussion of a number of doctrinal, moral, spiritual, and pastoral questions.”

Questions:

The pope says in dealing with family issues, some people have an “immoderate desire for total change without sufficient reflection or grounding,” while others wanted to “solve everything by applying general rules or deriving undue conclusions from particular theological considerations” (2). To which group are you closest?

The pope asserts that “not all discussions of doctrinal, moral or pastoral issues need to be settled by interventions of the magisterium” (3). Do you like this approach, or do you prefer to have clear answers?

“Unity of teaching and practice is certainly necessary in the Church, but this does not preclude various ways of interpreting some aspects of that teaching or drawing certain consequences from it” (3). How do you think unity and diversity should be balanced in the church?

Chapter 1: In the light of the Word

The Bible is full of stories about families and passages directed at families. Pope Francis cites many of these in this chapter.

Questions:

Which biblical family do you like? Which speaks to you and your family?

What Scripture passages did you use (or plan to use) at your wedding? Why?

What does Francis means when he writes, “The couple that loves and begets life is a true, living icon … capable of revealing God the Creator and Saviour” (11)?

Many feminists note that the Bible comes out of a patriarchal culture. How does Francis respond to this critique (9-10, 12-13)?

Does what the Bible says about children reflect your experience (14-18)?

Do you find comfort in what the pope says about suffering (19-22)?

Chapter 2: The experiences and challenges of families

Facts are important to Francis, so in chapter 2 he looks at the current reality of families. He notes that at the same time that families have come to enjoy greater freedom, they have come to receive less support from social structures. He discusses what the church and the state can do to respond to the challenges families face.

Questions:

How are families more free today than in the time of your parents and grandparents? How do they receive less support from social structures (32-34)?

Francis says, “The fear of loneliness and the desire for stability and fidelity exist side by side with a growing fear of entrapment in a relationship that could hamper the achievement of one’s personal goals” (34, 39). How do you see this in the lives of your family and friends?

How has the way the church presented its beliefs and treated people contributed to the problem (36-38)?

What does Francis mean by saying, “We have been called to form consciences, not to replace them” (37)? There is more about conscience in chapter 8.

What moves younger people to postpone marriage, family, or children (40-42)?

What can government in the United States do “to ensure the future of young people and help them realize their plan of forming a family” (43-47)?

What does your community do in welcoming and helping migrants and persons with special needs (47)?

What are the special challenges of the elderly and single parents (48-49)?

Stress, drugs, violence within families, and fears about employment and the future of their children — all are threats to families, according to Francis. What are the threats to families in your community?

Francis speaks of the advances in women’s rights but notes that much remains to be done (54). What are the things you think need to be done? Do you see the Spirit at work in the women’s movement?

What do you think of Francis’ description of the role of women and men in marriage (55-56)?

Chapter 3: Looking to Jesus: The vocation of the family

In this chapter, Francis recounts the life and teachings of Jesus and how they relate to family life. He also describes what is said about the family in church documents, especially Vatican II and recent papacies.

Questions:

Do you find the teachings of Jesus on the family hopeful, inspiring, full of love and tenderness (58-66)?

Does the language of church documents speak to you (67-75)? What makes sense or moves you? What is abstract, boring, or unintelligible? What is flat out objectionable?

What do you think about the way Francis talks about “imperfect situations” and “seeds of the Word” in other cultures (76-79)?

What do you think about the way Francis writes about the transmission of life and the rearing of children (80-85)? More on that in chapter 5 and 6.

Do you experience the church as a “family of families” (87-88)?

Chapter 4: Love in marriage

Francis says that we cannot express the Gospel of marriage and family without speaking of love. He begins this chapter with a meditation of St. Paul’s hymn to love (1 Cor. 13:4-7).  The meditation is part exhortation, part examination of conscience. He speaks of the joy and passion of married love as well as the dark side of violence and manipulation in sex.

Questions:

What part of his meditation on Paul’s hymn to love moved you most (90-119)?

Pope Francis says we become impatient “whenever we think that relationships or people ought to be perfect, or when we put ourselves at the center and expect things to turn out our way” (92). Is this your experience?

Pope Francis quotes St. Ignatius of Loyola who said, “Love is shown more by deeds than by words” (94). Do you agree?

“Envy is a form of sadness provoked by another’s prosperity; it shows that we are not concerned for the happiness of others but only with our own well-being” (95-96). What makes you envious?

“Love is not boastful” (97-98). What do you boast about?

“Loving ourselves is only important as a psychological prerequisite for being able to love others” (101). Agree? Disagree?

Francis talks a lot about the need for forgiveness in families (103-108). Is he right? What do you find helpful in his advice? What do you forgive? For what have you been forgiven?

“Love does not have to be perfect for us to value it. The other person loves me as best they can, with all their limits, but the fact that love is imperfect does not mean that it is untrue or unreal” (113). Is imperfect love enough to hold a marriage together?

What does Francis mean by “trust enables a relationship to be free” (115)? Does that match your experience?

Francis has a long quote from Martin Luther King (118). Are we as individuals, as a nation, able to observe what he says? What does this say about our political culture and our response to terrorism?

“After the love that unites us to God, conjugal love is the greatest form of friendship,” says Francis quoting St. Thomas Aquinas (123). Describe a couple you know who are truly friends.

What do you think of Francis’ argument for “indissoluble exclusivity” in marriage (123-124)?

Francis, the celibate, speaks of the passion, joy, and beauty of marriage (125-130, 142-152). Does he get it right? What rings true? What doesn’t?

Francis speaks to young people about the importance of marriage (131-132). Is he convincing?

Francis says the three essential words in a family are: “Please,” “thank you,” and “sorry.” Do you agree? How have these words been important in your family?

How can you encourage dialog in your family (136-141)?

Is Francis realistic in his description of violence and manipulation in sex (153-157)?

What do you think of Francis’ exegesis of St. Paul’s women “be subject to your husbands” (156)?

What do older couples think of Francis’ treatment of love and aging (163-164)?

Chapter 5: Love made fruitful

“Love,” the pope says, “always gives life” (165). “The family is the setting in which a new life is not only born but also welcomed as a gift of God” (166). He speaks of role of mothers, fathers, and grandparents in a family, the experience of pregnancy, and feminism.

Questions:

How does Francis describe the love of parents for their children being a reflection of God’s love for us (166)?

“Large families are a joy for the Church,” writes Pope Francis, but he also speaks of “responsible parenthood” (167). How are these two balanced?

How does Francis describe pregnancy (168-171)? Do mothers agree with what he says?

The pope describes the roles of mothers and fathers in a family (172-177). Where does he get it right? Wrong?

Despite women”s “wish to study, work, develop their skills and have personal goals,” he writes, “we cannot ignore the need that children have for a mother’s presence, especially in the first months of life” (173). Do you agree? How do women balance their own needs and goals with those of their children?

Francis says he values “feminism, but one that does not demand uniformity or negate motherhood” (173).  What does he mean? Do you agree?

What does he mean by “feminine genius” (173)?

What does Francis have to say to couples who are unable to have children (178-181)?

How does Francis want families to interact with the world around them (181-186)?

What is the role of the extended or wider family (187, 196-198)?

What is the relationship of children to their parents (188-190)?

What is the role of grandparents in a family (191-193)?

Does an “only child” miss something by not having brothers and sisters (194-195)?

Chapter 6: Some pastoral perspectives

Pope Francis says that he will not offer a pastoral plan for families, but rather reflections on some more significant pastoral challenges. It is then up to different communities to devise more practical and effective initiatives that respect both the church’s teaching and local problems and needs (199). He looks at the formation of priests, marriage preparation programs, crises in marriages, as well as the situations of single parents and gay couples.

Questions:

What suggestions would you make for improving the formation of priests and lay ministers so that they could help families more (200-204)?

What preparation for marriage does Francis see as necessary for engaged couples (205-211)?

What preparation did you get for marriage? What was helpful? How could it be better (205-211)?

Francis criticizes elaborate and expensive weddings (212) and urges couples to focus on the spiritual and theological import of the ceremony (213-216). Is this realistic? How can we help couples do this?

Francis speaks of marriage as “a life-long project” (218) that moves through various stages (220). What stages has your marriage gone through?

Francis warns against “unduly high expectations about conjugal life” (221). Was this true with your marriage? How did you deal with it?

What is the role of conscience in decisions about responsible parenthood (222)?

Francis speaks of the role of “experienced couples” in helping younger couples (223). How were you helped by experienced couples in the early years of your marriage? How have you helped other couples?

What does Francis means by “Love needs time and space; everything else is secondary” (224-226)?

Francis says every family faces crises (232), which can either weaken the couple’s relationship or strengthen it. How does he encourage couples to face crises (232-238)? How have you dealt with crises in your family?

Francis writes about how “old wounds” and “scars” can affect a couple’s relationship (239). How does he advise dealing with them?

When is divorce “inevitable” and even “morally necessary” (241)? What is the proper pastoral care in such situations (242-243)?

Have you or anyone you know gone through the church’s annulment process (244-245)? What was your experience?

How can we keep children from being hurt by divorce (245-246)?

Marriages between Catholics and non-Catholics have special challenges (247-249). What can help or hurt such marriages?

How well does Francis balance church teaching on same-sex attraction with the desire to “reaffirm that every person, regardless of sexual orientation, ought to be respected in his or her dignity” (250-251)?

How can the Christian community encourage and support single parents (252)?

How can the Christian community help surviving spouses deal with the death of a loved one (253-258)?

Chapter 7: Toward better education of children

Parents play an essential role in the moral development of their children. Francis encourages parents to be “vigilant” but not “obsessive” over what their children are doing and what they are exposed to (260-261). He discusses the role of discipline, technology, sex education, as well as the role of parents in passing on values and the faith.

Questions:

What is the difference between being “vigilant” and “obsessive” in supervising children (260-262)?

How do parents instill “trust and loving respect” (263), foster “good habits and a natural inclination to goodness” (264-266), and develop true freedom in their children (267)?

How do parents teach their children that “misbehavior has consequences” (268-270)?

What does Francis mean by saying, “by demanding too much, we gain nothing” (271-273)?

What does Francis mean by saying, “the family is the first school of human values” (274)?

How does technology help or hinder the educational process that occurs between parents and children (278)?

What is the proper role of sex education (280-286)?

What do you think of Francis’ discussion of masculinity and femininity (286)?

What are the challenges for parents in passing on the faith to their children (287-290)?

Francis says that “older resources and recipes do not always work” in education in faith (288). What does work in your experience?

Chapter 8: Accompanying, discerning, and integrating weakness

This chapter, where the pope discusses divorce, is perhaps the most controversial and most discussed section of the exhortation. Conservative rigorists wanted no change in the church’s practice of barring divorced and remarried Catholics from Communion, while pastoral do-gooders had an “immoderate desire for total change without sufficient reflection or grounding” (2). Francis rather speaks of the need for reflection, discernment, and the role of individual conscience.

Questions:

Rather than condemnations for “living in sin,” Francis wants the church to turn “with love to those who participate in her life in an incomplete manner, recognizing that the grace of God works also in their lives by giving them the courage to do good, to care for one another in love and to be of service to the community in which they live and work” (291). Does this make sense to you or do you think it will encourage more people to not follow the church’s teaching on marriage?

Francis says that some forms of union “do not yet or no longer correspond to the church’s teaching on marriage” but “realize it in at least a partial and analogous way” (292-293). Can you give examples of such unions? On the other hand, what would be an example of a union that “radically contradicts” the ideal?

What does the pope mean by “pastoral discernment” (293), by “cultural and contingent situations” (294)? More on discernment below.

What do Popes John Paul and Francis mean by “the law of gradualness” (295)?

What is the role of discernment in “irregular situations” (296)?

Francis says, “I am not speaking only of the divorced and remarried, but of everyone, in whatever situation they find themselves” (297). Who else would be included?

What are the cases to which Pope Francis seems to be most sympathetic (298)?

How does the church more fully integrate the divorced and remarried into the Christian community while also avoiding any occasion of scandal (299)?

In describing the process of discernment, Pope Francis offers some questions the divorced and remarried should ask themselves (300). Are these helpful? What other questions might they ask themselves?

What is the role of a priest in this process of discernment (300)?

Pope Francis says, “It can no longer simply be said that all those in any ‘irregular’ situation are living in a state of mortal sin and are deprived of sanctifying grace” (301). Does this surprise you? Do you agree?

What are factors that might limit the ability to make a decision or mitigate a person’s moral responsibility for his or her actions (301-302)?

What is the role of individual conscience in situations that do not objectively embody the church’s understanding of marriage (303)?

What is the role of discernment in the application of general principles and rules (304-305)?

Francis concludes that “it is possible that in an objective situation of sin — which may not be subjectively culpable, or fully such — a person can be living in God’s grace, can love and can also grow in the life of grace” (305). Does this reflect the lived experience of couples in “irregular situations”?

Pope Francis says such couples should receive the church’s help, and in footnote 351 says, “In certain cases, this can include the sacraments,” including the Eucharist. How do such couples determine whether they can go to Communion?

How does “love cover a multitude of sins” (306)?

How can the church continue to propose the full ideal of marriage while at the same time showing compassion and mercy to those who don’t meet that standard (307-310)?

How does Francis respond to those who prefer “a more rigorous pastoral care which leaves no room for confusion” (308-311)?

Francis proposes “a pastoral discernment filled with merciful love, which is ever ready to understand, forgive, accompany, hope, and above all integrate” (312). Is this a game changer for couples in irregular unions?

Chapter 9: The spirituality of marriage and the family

In this chapter, Francis describes certain basic characteristics of the “specific spirituality that unfolds in family life and its relationships” (313).

Questions:

How does the Lord’s presence dwell “in real and concrete families, with all their daily troubles and struggles, joys and hopes” (315)? How have you experienced his presence in your family?

“The fraternal and communal demands of family life are an incentive to growth in openness of heart and thus to an ever fuller encounter with the Lord,” writes Francis (316). Is this your experience?

“Moments of pain and difficulty will be experienced in union with the Lord’s cross,” while “moments of joy, relaxation, celebration, and even sexuality can be experienced as a sharing in the full life of the resurrection,” says Francis (317). How has this been true in your life?

Does your family pray together (318)? How? If not, would it help?

What does Francis mean by a “spirituality of exclusive and free love” (319-320)?

How does “a spirituality of care, consolation, and incentive” help families (321-324)?

“No family drops down from heaven perfectly formed; families need constantly to grow and mature in the ability to love,” writes Francis. At the same time, we must “stop demanding of our interpersonal relationships a perfection, a purity of intentions and a consistency which we will only encounter in the Kingdom to come” (325). Does Francis strike a proper balance between the ideal and the reality of marriage in his exhortation?

[Jesuit Fr. Thomas Reese is a senior analyst for NCR and author of Inside the Vatican: The Politics and Organization of the Catholic Church. His email address is treesesj@ncronline.org.]

 

本集的梵蒂岡連線會跟您一起探討教宗方濟各有關家庭的《愛的喜樂》勸諭,還有香港教區­夏志誠輔理主教的訪問。

 

 

教宗方濟各《愛的喜樂》勸諭:

願家庭得享慈悲與融和

教宗方濟各的《愛的喜樂》(Amoris Laetitia)世界主教會議後宗座勸諭於48日公諸於世。教宗在勸諭公布當天給全球主教親手寫了一封短信,祈願他們受託照管的所有家庭和所有人在納匝肋聖家的保護下,能從這道勸諭中獲得益處。

《愛的喜樂》勸諭結集了2014年和2015年兩屆家庭世界主教會議的成果,重申一男一女不可拆散的婚姻家庭的寶貴與美好,同時也以求實精神看待脆弱家庭,鼓勵牧人們秉持認真分辨的態度照顧家庭。勸諭分成9章,以慈悲與融和為兩條軸線逐一伸展。教會在教義與實踐上需要保持一致,但鑒於個別國家在文化、傳統及挑戰上的各種因素,因此教義的某些方面能夠以不同方式加以詮釋。

第一章:聖言光照下的家庭

第一章以天主聖言為依據,闡述按照天主肖像受造的男女婚姻的美好,家庭溝通、團結及恩愛的重要性。但家庭不是抽象概念,卻肩負著匠人的責任。此外,失業及許多移民和難民家庭的處境也是不可忽略的悲劇,他們遭拒絕,無能為力,每天過著辛勞和噩夢般的生活

第二章:家庭的現實和挑戰

第二章例舉了今日家庭的諸多挑戰,例如:個人主義、時來暫去的文化、拒絕新生命的思維、住房緊張、色情氾濫、侵害未成年人。教宗也提到移民問題,基督徒遭受迫害,尤其是中東少數族群受到的嚴峻考驗。此外,在法律上將婚姻與同性結合等同看待會導致家庭瓦解的危險。教宗指出,任何不穩定或不傳遞生命的結合,都無法為社會未來提供保障。

同樣的,女性遭受暴行、女性的身體被當作工具使用、租借子宮的惡行、以及諸如社會性別論令人不安的意識形態都在摧毀家庭。面對這一切,基督徒不可為追隨時尚或因自卑感而放棄婚姻價值。主教們必須遵循積極、款待的牧靈路缐提倡婚姻聖事,為家庭指出幸福道路,親近處境脆弱的人。

教宗也以健康的自我批評態度指出在基督徒婚姻上的不足之處,例如:經常只著眼於生育子女的義務或教義和生物倫理問題,讓人覺得婚姻似乎是一個負擔,一個抽象理想,而非使人得以成長和成就的行程。基督徒蒙召陶冶良知,而非取代良知。

第三章:家庭的聖召

第三章論述家庭聖召及不可剝奪的生命權。教宗指出,不可將婚姻的不可拆散性視為一個枷鎖,婚姻聖事絕非一件,一個空洞儀式,一個社會俗套。婚姻是使夫妻聖化和得救的一項恩典。針對處在困境和受傷的家庭,教宗要求牧人們本著對真理的愛,認真分辨這些情況,因為在各種情況中,責任程度並非都是同等的。一方面,需要闡明教義觀點;另一方面,也應避免擅自判斷,不顧個別情況的複雜性及個別的人的痛苦。教宗重申人生命的重大價值不可剝奪的出生權利,強調醫療人員有良心異議的道德義務,自然死亡的權利以及堅決抵拒死刑。

第四章:婚姻中的愛

第四章闡明婚姻之愛乃是友誼之愛。教宗稱婚姻中的友誼之愛建立在婚姻聖事上,總是尋求對方的益處,具有典型深厚友誼的互惠和溫柔。在這層意義上,友誼之愛被稱為愛德,因為它使我們睜開雙眼,看到人所具有的價值。婚姻中的夫妻之愛也同樣重要,它是絕妙的禮物人與人交流的語言,注視另一個人神聖不可侵犯的價值

第五章:碩果累累的愛

第五章論述結出碩果的愛,在家庭中生育子女和迎接生命。教宗在此重申胚胎在受孕時的價值,因為每個嬰兒始終在天主心中。因此,不應把子女當作一個附屬品或實現個人願望的解決辦法,而應視他們為價值無比的人,尊重他們的尊嚴,承認他們擁有母親和父親的天生權利。

對於那些不能生育的夫妻,教宗鼓勵他們以不同方式表達父母之愛,例如領養子女。立法機構應提供有助於領養和代養子女的程序,但應始終考慮兒童的利益,以應有的法律打擊販賣兒童的行徑。

第六章:家庭的牧靈願景

第六章提出幾項牧靈願景,從旁陪伴夫妻的重要性。教宗重提世界主教會議的幾個主題,例如司鐸和家庭牧靈人員需要接受適當的培育,未婚夫妻的婚前準備行程需要受到引導,新婚夫妻婚後頭幾年的信仰生活需要得到陪伴。此外,離婚是今日家庭的一個悲劇,教會應以接近和務實態度予以陪伴,保護受傷家庭的子女,以免他們成為離婚父母的人質

關於離婚和離婚再婚問題,《愛的喜樂》勸諭重申兩屆世界主教會議的觀點:需要分辨和關注離婚個案,尤其是遭受不義的一方。離婚未婚者領受聖體聖事應得到鼓勵,同時不使離婚再婚者感到受了絕罰,卻應以極大尊重陪伴他們。在基督徒團體内照顧離婚再婚者並不表示削弱婚姻的不可拆散性,而是在表達愛德。

勸諭接著提及信仰不同婚姻的複雜情況,但只要尊重宗教自由,差異就能成為跨宗教交談的最佳場所。對於有同性戀傾向的人,教會應尊重他們的尊嚴,不予以歧視。與此同時,教宗也強調在同性結合與按照天主計劃的婚姻生活之間,沒有任何相似之處。因此,教會在這方面遭受壓力是令人無法接受的。

第七章:子女的妥善教育

第七章提出父母教育子女的重大責任首要權利。勸諭提出5個要點:教育不等於控制,而是啟發子女有責任心的自由;教育在於教導等待的能力,在數碼飛速發展的當今世界中尤為重要;教育在於培養親子關係,避免子女患上科技孤獨症;性教育有其必要,但必須使之成為愛的教育在適當時刻和適當方式下進行,同時也應教導健康的節操,不使人淪為純粹的物體;家庭應繼續成為傳遞信仰的場所,教導子女信仰的真和美。

第八章:陪伴脆弱處境者

第八章重提世界主教會議討論的一個核心主題:脆弱處境中的家庭。教宗表示,我們不應期待這道勸諭能給出一個適用於所有情況的一般性規範。牧人們該當推動男女忠貞的基督信仰聖事性婚姻,同時也應以慈悲之心接納和陪伴許多信友的脆弱處境,使他們融入教會團體。

教宗指出,使人人融入教會團體也包括離婚再婚者,幫助他們透過社會服務或祈禱聚會參與教會團體生活,使他們不感到自己遭絕罰。在此沒有單純的處方,只能鼓勵以負責的態度分辨個別案例,因為每種情況的責任程度均不相同

教宗在勸諭的兩個注腳中提到離婚再婚者的情況:一、牧人通過分辨能夠認出沒有嚴重過犯的特殊情況,因此一項條文的效力不必與其它情況相同;二、在某些情況下,教會為困難情況提供的幫助也可是聖事上的幫助,因為告解亭不應成為酷刑室聖體聖事不是為獎勵完美的人,而是為滋養軟弱的人

對離婚再婚者而言,進行良心省察是有益處的。他們可以通過辦告解與一位司鐸交談,好能對自己的處境有正確判斷。但重要的是保持謙遜、謹慎態度,熱愛教會,避免傳達錯誤訊息,使人誤以為教會持有雙重道德標準,或聖事似乎是用來交換恩惠的特權。

總之,福音的理想不可削弱,但需要憐憫脆弱的人,不判斷,不定罪,不排拒任何人,只以慈悲相待。教會不是海關,而是父親的家,每個人在這裡都有一席之地。這就是愛德第一的含義:宣講福音,卻不為天主慈悲設下條件,不以優越感判斷受傷的家庭。

第九章:婚姻與家庭的靈修

教宗在最後一章,即第九章中邀請信友們養成在家庭内祈禱的習慣,讓基督聯合並光照處在苦日子中的家庭生活,將他們的困苦轉化為愛的奉獻。家庭不是一個完美的現實或一勞永逸的配套,而是一個使每個人逐步增進愛的能力的行程。

3 Responses to Pope Francis